companies must account for interest income and interest expense. Interest income is the money companies make from
keeping their cash in interest-bearing savings accounts, money market funds and the like. On the other hand,
interest expense is the money companies paid in interest for money they borrow. Some income statements show
interest income and interest expense separately. Some income statements combine the two numbers. The interest
income and expense are then added or subtracted from the operating profits to arrive at operating profit
before income tax.
Finally, income tax is deducted and you arrive at the bottom line: net profit or net losses. (Net profit is
also called net income or net earnings.) This tells you how much the company actually earned or lost during the
accounting period. Did the company make a profit or did it lose money?
Earnings Per Share or
income statements include a calculation of earnings per share or EPS. This calculation tells you how much money
shareholders would receive for each share of stock they own if the company distributed all of its net income for
calculate EPS, you take the total net income and divide it by the number of outstanding shares of the company.
flow statements report a company’s inflows and outflows of cash. This is important because a company needs to have
enough cash on hand to pay its expenses and purchase assets. While an income statement can tell you whether
a company made a profit, a cash flow statement can tell you whether the company generated cash.
flow statement shows changes over time rather than absolute dollar amounts at a point in time. It uses and reorders
the information from a company’s balance sheet and income statement.