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The early development of the function can be traced back to at least two distinct movements. One element has its origins in the late 19th century, where organizations such as Cadburysat its Bournville factory recognised the importance of looking after the welfare of the workforce, and their families. The employment of women in factories in the United Kingdomduring the First World Warlead to the introduction of "Welfare Officers". Meanwhile, in the United Statesthe concept of human resources developed as a reaction to the efficiency focus of Taylorismor "scientific management" in the early 1900s, which developed in response to the demand for ever more efficient working practices within highly mechanised factories, such as in the Ford Motor Company. By 1920, psychologists and employment experts in the United States started the human relationsmovement, which viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. 

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